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Table of contents

In the trite conventions with which the latter became clothed the cossante had a new oppor- tunity of life. Trohadores wearied by their own monotony, jograes wishing to please a patron with a novidade, had recourse to the cossante. The jogral wandering from house to house and town to town necessarily came into close touch with the peasants. These, developed and adorned according to his talent, he would ITitroduce to the Court among his motz recreamens e prazers.

Alfonso X reproached Pero da Ponte for not singing like a Pro- vencal but, rather, like Bcrnaldo de Bonaval first half 13th c. King Dinis in the second half of the century viewed the cossante with such favour that he wrote or collected some of the most curious and delightful that we possess. But although King Dinis set his name to a handful of the finest cossantes, most of the cossante-wr'itcrs belonged to an earlier period and were men of humble birth. This was a popular theme, but the two poets who seem to have felt most keenly the attraction of the popular poetry and to have cultivated it most successfully are Joan Zorro fi.

In this series of harcarolas C.

Portuguese Literature (1922)

Martin Codax at about the same time was singing graceful songs of the ondas do mar of Vigo C. He belonged to an ancient family of Galicia, was " C. Thus he is scarcely even a name. Michaglis de Vasconcellos, Moogo from monachus. Charino is buried at Pontevedra, in the Franciscan convent which he founded. He escaped the perils of the sea, the muigran coita do mar C. His sea lyrics are only excelled by the enchanting melody of the poem C. Of the later poets Estevam Coelho, perhaps father of one of the assassins of Ines ti , wrote a cossante of haunting beauty C.

King Dinis, having thrown wide his palace doors to these thyme- scented lyrics, would turn again to the now musty chamber of Provencal song C. The reader or listener would easily complete them. I lis pastorela C. Riding along a stream he hears a solitary shepherdess singing and stays to listen.

Moisés se aprovecha de la inocencia de Paloma - El inquilino - La Rosa de Guadalupe

First she sang Solo ranw verde frolido,'- then —ixs if to prove that she is a shepherdess of Arcady, not of real life — Ay, cstornino do avelanedo, Cantades vos e moir'eu c peno, D'amorcs ei mal, an impassioned cry of the heart only comparable with Thine earth now springs, mine fadeth : Thy thorn without, my thorn my heart invadeth ; or that wonderful line of a wonderful poem : Ilia cantat, nos tacemus : quando ver venit meum. The refrain is identical in C. The fourth cossante we also have complete, a lovely barcarola by Joan Zorro C.

Levítico 19 João Ferreira de Almeida Atualizada

No drawing-room lyric, evidently : more likely to be sung in taverns ; composed perhaps by a knight like him of C V. Like the Provencal' poet Guilherme Figueira who mout se fetz grazir. The cantiga de vildos was no such simple popular lyric, but rather a drinkers' song, picaresquely allusive, sung by a jogral who non fo horn que sauhes caber entre 'Is baros ni entre la bona gen but sang vilmen et en gens bassas, entre gens bassas per pauc d'avcr Riquier , cantares de que la genie baja e de servil condicion se alegra Santillana.

The cossante, on the contrary, came straight from field and hill into palace and song-book. Probably Up the stream the boats came gliding Gracefully. All along the river-bent The fair maiden singing went Of love's dream : Fair to see the boats came gliding Up the stream. The women of Galicia have always been noted for their poetical and musical talent.

But whether any of the cossantcs that we have in the Cancio- neiros is strictly of the people or not, their traditional indigenous character is no longer doubtful. It would surely be a most astounding fact had the ralician- Portuguese Court poets, who in their cantigas de amor reduced Frovengal poetry to a colourless insipidity, succeeded so much better with the cossantes that, while the originals from which they copied have vanished, the imita- tions stand out in the Portuguese Cancioneiros like crimson poppies among corn.

It is remarkable, too, that of the three kinds of poem in the old Cancioneiros, satire, love song, and cossante, the first two remain in the Cancioneiro de Resende , but the third has totally disappeared. The explanation is that as Court and people drew apart and the literary influence of Castille grew, the poems based on songs of the people were no longer in favour.

Discussions

But they continued, like the Guadiana, underground, and D. Leite de Vasconcellos has discovered whole cossantes sung by peasants at their work in the fields in the nineteenth century. Almeida Garrett had written in a general sense : OS vestigios d'essa poesia indigena ainda duram Revisla Univ. Lishonense, vol. Na ribeirinha ribcira Naquella ribeira Anda Id um peixinho viva bravo Naquella ribeira. Sec J. Leite de Vasconcellos are rude specimens by the side of a poem like Ay flares, ay flares do verde pinho, it should be remembered that the quadra or perhaps one should say distich without refrain has now replaced the cossante on the lips of the people, and that among these quatrains something of the old cossante's charm and melancholy is still found.

One singer would give a distich of a cassante, as to-day a quadra, another would take it up and return it with variations. The cossante did not always preserve its simple form, or, rather, the more complicated poems renewed themselves in its popularity. We find it as a hailada C. But these hybrid forms are not the true cossante, which is always marked by dignity, restraint, simple grace, close communion with Nature, delicacy of thought, and a haunting felicity of expression.

The cossante written by King Sancho seems to indicate a natural development of the indigenous poetry. In its form it owed nothing to the poetry of Provence or North France, but its progress was perhaps quickened, and at least its perfection preserved, by the systematic cultivation of poetry introduced from abroad at a time when no middle class separated Court and peasant.


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The tantalizing frag- ments that survive in Gil Vicente's plays show all too plainly what marvels of popular song might flower and die unknown. Barros, Dial, em lovvor da nossa ling. Juem as faz serem tratadas e recebidas do comum consifUimento? O tempo. Only in the extravagant devotional mannerisms [gongorismo ao divino of the seventeenth century could Soror Violante do Ceo describe Christ as a galan de ojos verdes.

Dona genser qiCicii no sai dir or la genscr que sia says Arnaut de Marueil at the end of the thirteenth century. The Portuguese poet would make an end there : his lady is fairest among women, fairer than he can say. He would never go on to describe her grey eyes and snowy brow : huelhs vairs and fron pus hlanc que lis. But introduced into alien and artificial forms, like mountain gentians in a garden, the monotony can no longer please. In the cantigas de amor the iteration becomes a tedious sluggishness of thought, whereas in the cossantes it is part of the music of the poem. Halle, Paris, Francisco Adolpho de Varnhagen.

Madrid, Ernesto Monaci. Theophilo Braga.

Creolization and Diaspora in the Portuguese Indies

Lisboa, Vienna , 2nd cd. Imola, Diniz, pcla primeira vez impresso sobre o manuscripto da Vaticana. Caetano Lopes de Moura. Henry R. Hallo, Enrico Molteni.

New York, London, Transcrito y comentado por Francisco Asenjo Barbieri. Madrid Madrid, 1S Of these the Cancioneiro da Ajiida C. Another edition, by Varnhagen, appeared in C. Carolina Michaelis de Vasconcellos in C. The third volume, of notes, is still unpublished. This part received a critical edition at the hands of Professor H.

Lang in ; 2nd ed.