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As the author of two highly influential pamphlets, The American Crisis and Common Sense , at the start of the American Revolution, he aimed to inspire the colonists to declare independence from Britain. Although his work influenced the Founding Fathers to some degree, he had a much greater impact on the common people, who, after reading these two works, became much more supportive of the Revolutionary cause.

Thomas Paine

Although the push for American independence was already burning when Paine was writing, he certainly helped to kindle the flame. John Locke 29 August - 28 October was an English philosopher and physician regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers, especially concerning the development of political philosophy. His writings influenced Voltaire and Rousseau, but most importantly, the American revolutionaries. Thomas Jefferson used the thoughts first penned by John Locke while writing the Declaration of Independence. The phrase "life, liberty, and pursuit of happiness," was an idea first considered by Locke in his Two Treatises on Government.

Essay Concerning Human Understanding. Call to order: or order pocket constitution books online. All rights reserved. Oak Hill Publishing Company. Box , Naperville, IL For questions or comments about this site please email us at info constitutionfacts. An amateur architect, Jefferson prepared his own sketch for a circular Capitol, which was submitted anonymously and rejected by President Washington and the commissioners.

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In the commission selected an exterior design by another amateur architect William Thornton — and an interior design by Stephen Hallet — , the only professional architect to enter the competition. Advertisement for a Capitol, c. March 6, Manuscript Division a. Thomas Jefferson's February 15, , opinion on the constitutionality of a national bank is considered one of the stellar statements on the limited powers and strict construction of the Federal Constitution.

Alexander Hamilton, a proponent of the broadest interpretation of the constitution based on the implied powers of the Federal Constitution, was the leading advocate for the national bank. Jefferson and Hamilton quickly became outspoken leaders of two opposing interpretations of national government. Opinion on a National Bank This manual was written by Thomas Jefferson in and is based on the Parliamentary Pocket-Book or commonplace book and his experience during his tenure as vice-president and presiding officer of the United States Senate, — The Manual was first printed by Jefferson's friend and political ally, Samuel Harrison Smith — , in and still serves as a basis for parliamentary practices in the Senate.

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Draft of Manual of Parliamentary Practice , c. Charles Willson Peale's vibrant life portrait shows Jefferson as he looked when serving as secretary of state in President Washington's cabinet. The portrait of Jefferson at aged forty-eight hung in Peale's famous museum of science, art, and curiosities in Philadelphia until the collection was dispersed in The portrait was then purchased for and installed at the Pennsylvania State House Independence Hall in the very room where the Declaration of Independence was approved by the Continental Congress in Charles Willson Peale.

Philadelphia, Copyprint of oil on canvas.

President George Washington was near the end of his second presidential term in when he sat for this portrait by Gilbert Stuart — Washington's portrait by Stuart became the favorite of nineteenth-century lithographers, who made and sold thousands of copies. Gilbert Stuart. George Washington , Copyprint of oil on canvas in the collection of the United States Architect of the Capitol.

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Prints and Photographs Division B. The Kentucky Resolutions were drafted in secret by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison in the fall of to counter the perceived threat to constitutional liberties from the Alien and Sedition Acts. These federal laws limited naturalization rights and free speech by declaring public criticism of government officials to be seditious libel, punishable by imprisonment and fines. Jefferson's draft resolutions claimed states had the right to nullify federal laws and acts that violated the Constitution. The Kentucky Resolutions were passed, and the role Jefferson and Madison played in drafting them was kept secret throughout their years of public service.

Draft of the Kentucky Resolutions, November 16, Partisan politics spurred newspaper growth in the United States from 92 in to at the end of Thomas Jefferson's presidency.

All but 56 were identified with a political party. Philip Freneau's National Gazette was the first official Republican newspaper. Jefferson and James Madison provided encouragement, money and a position in Jefferson's Department of State to Freneau to establish a Republican newspaper. The National Gazette was the leading critic of Federalist political programs durings its two year existence. Philip Freneau. National Gazette. Philadelphia: November 14, Serial and Government Publications Division James Callender's — History of the United States for was the original public venue for reports of financial dealings by Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton as well as his adulterous affair with Maria Reynolds b.

Jefferson's political lieutenant, clerk of the U. House of Representatives, and later first Librarian of Congress John James Beckley was the immediate source of the confidential documents used by Callender to discredit Hamilton. Callender was one of the political pamphleteers supported by Jeffersonians to attack their Federalist opponents. James T.

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History of the United States for Her name is Sally. Callender, whose vitriolic attacks on Federalist opponents of Jefferson in the s had been secretly funded by Jefferson and Republican allies, turned against Jefferson when the president failed to give him a patronage position. The Richmond Recorder, September 1, Courtesy of the Virginia State Library, Richmond a.

Thomas Jefferson seldom wrote articles or essays for the press, but he did urge his supporters such as James Madison, James Monroe — , John Beckley — , and David Rittenhouse — to publicly counter the Federalists. Thomas Jefferson to James Madison July 7, In this cartoon, Thomas Jefferson kneels before the altar of Gallic despotism as God and an American eagle attempt to prevent him from destroying the United States Constitution. Jefferson is supported by Satan, the writings of Thomas Paine, and the French philosophers.

Artist unknown. The Providential Detection , — Jefferson viewed the presidential election of , which won him the presidency, as a second American Revolution. The nation declared it's will by dismissing functionaries of one principle, and electing those of another in the two branches, executive and legislative, submitted to their election. Thomas Jefferson to Spencer Roane September 6, Thomas Jefferson was inaugurated third president of the United States on March 4, , after being elected by the House of Representatives on February 17, , on the thirty-sixth ballot in one of the nation's closest and most divisive presidential contests.

In this first inaugural address President Jefferson reached out to heal the political wounds by appealing to non-partisan political unification.

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First Inaugural Address March 4, Congress readily complied with the president's request and the importation of slaves was prohibited as of January 1, Thomas Jefferson believed strongly in religious freedom and the separation of church and state. While President, Jefferson was accused of being a non-believer and an atheist. Jefferson attended church services in the Capitol and on several occasions expressed his beliefs including this letter explaining his constitutional view. Thomas Jefferson to Rev. Samuel Miller January 23, Charles Jansen sketched the President's House in during the second term of Jefferson's presidency.

The president's house was not called the White House until it was painted white after the British burned it during the War of Charles Jansen. Stranger in America , Copyprint of frontispiece.

Establishing A Federal Republic - Thomas Jefferson | Exhibitions - Library of Congress

In this critical cartoon, Thomas Jefferson as the cock or rooster, courts a hen, portrayed as Sally Hemings. Contemporary political opponents of Jefferson sought to destroy his presidency and his new political party with charges of Jefferson's promiscuous behavior and his ownership of slaves. The cock was also a symbol of revolutionary France, which Jefferson was known to admire and which, his critics believed, Jefferson unduly favored.